29 June 2010

Family Finder Testing Series: Sharing your genealogy research

I’ve tested with Family Finder…now what?

With the advent of Family Finder (FF) by Family Tree DNA, many genetic genealogists are scrambling to understand how to use this new test, how to locate cousins, how it can help their existing projects, and how to build Family Finder-specific projects. Those genealogists who are also interested in statistics and the genetics behind this powerful test are building databases to map who is on which chromosome as well as creating many other useful tools to compare the raw data.

Given that, it is important to clarify how this test can be helpful to the average genealogist as well as to project administrators. The following categories will be addressed in this series:

....Sharing your genealogy research
....Expanding matches; narrowing the search

....What is the advantage to Chromosome Mapping for the average genetic genealogist? For an Administrator? How necessary is it?

....How does Family Finder help projects?

....Creating a Family Finder project

Testing with Family Finder or with other autosomal tests designed to find cousin matches throughout your pedigree can be daunting to those of us who have come to rely on the ease and consistency of the Y-chromosome. It is time though to examine how to effectively use our genealogy to locate the common ancestor.

This type of test focuses on immediate family and back to fifth cousins, although more distant cousins can be located. Just what is a fifth cousin?

A Fifth cousin is seven generations from yourself, taking you back to your fourth great-grandparents. You have 64 fourth great-grandparents. Not many of us can claim that we know all of them. Also, there is the situation known as pedigree collapse as I mentioned in the previous article. That is, you are related to yourself on more than one set of grand-parents. Somewhere in your line you may have a connection to a set of grand-parents twice. This is the case when cousins marry each other so you do not have different people filling the roles of all the ancestors.

· Siblings have the same parents. (2)
· First cousins have the same grandparents. (4)
· Second cousins have the same great-grandparents. (8)
· Third cousins have the same great-great-grandparents. (16)
· Fourth cousins have the same great-great-great-grandparents. (32)
· Fifth cousins have the same great-great-great-great-grandparents. (64)

In autosomal testing, you receive a match at a certain cousin level. It is important to understand that the designated level is based on the amount of DNA you share with your match. As we know, each person inherits a mixture of DNA from his or her ancestors and as that mixture is unique to each person, the level of cousin-ship is more likely a range in reality. That is, the genealogical paper trail will indicate more accurately the cousin-ship, and it can be either side of the suggested cousin-ship. The listed cousin-ship is a good basis for determining where to begin sharing your lineage.

I have a match who was declared a third cousin, but is, in reality, a seventh cousin. The reason for this suggested match being so recent, but in actuality so far back, is that my great-grandparents were first cousins. I inherited more DNA on that mutual line than one would normally. It makes me appear closer than I really am.

On my other matches where a common ancestor has been found, I was listed as probably fifth to seventh cousins. Those matches proved to be ninth and tenth cousins.

When the reliability of the test requires that cousin-ship be listed as fifth to distant cousins, and the likelihood of finding that cousin is a low percentage, how is it that I have the common ancestor for four matches? The answer is simple. My matches and I inherited large enough segments of DNA from our distant ancestors, and our paper trails along the ancestral lines are very wide.

Sharing your genealogy research

Is your data deep and wide?

Deep? Yes. Do you have seven or more generations back from you on all your lines? Do you know all of your thirty-two fourth great-grandparents? Most people do not, but the farther back your lines reach, it is more likely you will find your common ancestor.
Wide? Yes. The more names (including spouses), dates, and places you have for the direct line, the siblings of the direct ancestors, and their children and grandchildren, the more likely you will find the common ancestor. A major reason I found my common ancestors is that not only did I have the lineage back to the late 1600s, but I had many descendants of the siblings of my direct line. In some cases, I have tried to bring the lines down to the present.

Share your data effectively.

After contacting your match, it is extremely important to share as much data as you can, but many people have thousands of names in their database. For this reason, it is wise to use some strategies to effectively target where the match could be.

After looking for surnames you may have in common, check locations. It is very possible that their ancestor married a sister or cousin of your ancestor, thus the surnames would be different until both lines work back to the common ancestor. A location may provide a clue to which lines could relate.

Compare your data in the range where you could share a common ancestor in actuality. That is, if you are slated as a 5th cousin, share lineage from your 3rd great-grandparents back to the 6th or 7th at least.

Sharing your data efficiently.

There are several ways to share your genealogy efficiently. Family Tree DNA allows you to upload your GEDCOM and/or list on your personal Family Finder pages your surnames with a location. It is important to list variations of the surname separately as the program is designed to highlight in bold print the surnames you have in common with your matches. Many people, however, are using the location area to list dates and details of that country or state. Remember testing is international and those you match outside of your country may not know where towns are or state codes.

Your own personal website is a great way to share your data. Send the URL to those you match for them to locate common names or places. Some people choose to create their own websites either through various genealogical sites which offer space for free or to pay for their own site. Some use Ancestry.com to post their information.

Additionally, using your genealogy program, you can compile a series of descendant reports of your fourth great-grandparents and store them either in your email program’s draft section or in your word processor. These can be easily sent to those you match.

Suggest and request that your matches send you the same information.

Personally, I find it easier to scan the information in an outline form rather than click on multiple “boxes” of some online pedigrees or GEDCOMs.

In summary:

1. Do your genealogy as far back as you can, and bring down as many of the siblings along those ancestral lines (siblings of your direct line, their children, etc.) closer to the present. Cover the time frame from 3rd cousins-10th cousins with these details. Do not forget spouses and the dates and locations of all events.

2. Use a website to post the information you wish to share, or prepare various descendant charts for major parts of your line that you can forward to your matches.

3. When you write your matches, send the info in #2 and ask if any names or places are shared.

4. Realize ... and let your matches know ... that the connection may not be on your direct lines; therefore, the marriages of children, their children and grandchildren are important as those are surnames that could trigger a starting point for finding the common ancestor.

5. Realize that if you look at your lineage at the 5th cousin level (7 generations back from you; 4th gr-grandparents), you or your match may have a lot of gaps. This is a major reason why you cannot locate the common ancestor.

6. Realize that the current technology has given us this tool to help with our family search, but there are no guarantees of easy or great success. Like any other DNA test, the paper trail is most important.

7. Realize that in time, we will work out how best to do this, just as we did when DNA testing for genealogy was first born. We are pioneers again, and sharing ideas is the way to conquer this task.

8. Understand that Family Tree DNA and 23andMe do not have the space to post large chunks of our lineage. Their purpose is to find us matches. I'm only speculating, but the arrangements for sharing lineage on FF (surname lists and/or your GEDCOM) could get tweaked at some point, or we could get more creative with how we use it. For example: List your surnames under SURNAME; give your URL for the chart of that line under COUNTRY. People who do name searches will look at the URL out of curiosity and find many more names there.

9. Share the above information with people you match. This is a new tool for genealogists and most are still learning what to do.

10. Have fun!

©Aulicino, 21 Jun 2010
Thank you R.

17 June 2010

Three DNA Tests for Genealogists, part 3 Autosomal

Family Finder Testing

This test by Family Tree DNA focuses on autosomal DNA (atDNA). Autosomal DNA is found in our 22 pairs of non-sex chromosomes. The atDNA represents the accumulated DNA inheritance from your ancestors. You inherit approximately fifty percent of your genes from your mother and the remainder from your father. In turn, each of them inherited about fifty percent from each of their parents, and so on. Autosomal markers recombine or restructure themselves differently for every person at conception. In other words, these are the markers which make you look like your family, but not exactly…unless you have an identical twin. These markers make you a unique individual. They give you your mother’s high cheek bones, your father’s nose, etc.

Family Finder tests SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms), for over 500,000 autosomal points.

Both men and woman can test their atDNA. This test finds matches for any of your cousins on your pedigree chart between the top line of the pedigree chart (Y-DNA) and the bottom line (mtDNA). However, the test has limitations as it requires a certain length of DNA in a continuous sequence to be handed down from the ancestor in order to match another tester with enough mathematical certainty to determine a level of cousin-ship. The longer the segments are that match a person, the closer the relationship. In the case of children, half-siblings, parents, uncles, aunts, first cousins, and other close relatives, there will be multiple long segments of matching DNA. With more distant cousins, those segments are much shorter. The test is most accurate in determining relationships up to the fifth cousin level. This does not mean you can only find fifth cousins or less. I have found seventh, ninth, and tenth cousins, but finding the common ancestor can be extremely difficult unless you and your match have extensive information on your lineage and not just for the direct line.

The determination of a cousin-ship is built on the amount of DNA inherited from your ancestors. As we all can inherit a different amount from each ancestor, the calculations are only mathematical probabilities which can give you a range of relationship. That is, your match may be listed as a fourth cousin, but in reality, the paper trail could show the match to be anywhere from a 3rd cousin once removed to a 6th cousin or more. The reason for this is multi-faceted, but, in general, it depends upon the amount of DNA inherited, the generational “half-steps” of being once or twice removed as well as a possibility of pedigree collapse.

Since each person inherits a different combination of their ancestors’ DNA, it can be prudent to have your parents, grandparents and cousins tested, as well. This will definitely help you narrow connection possibilities with matches. Testing the older generations will also help you find matches farther back in your lineage. As the test is able to confirm an approximate fifth cousin match, a fifth cousin for your parent or grandparent takes you farther back in time than a test for yourself. BUT, as we all inherit different amounts of autosomal DNA, you may have matches your sibling or cousin does not have. Testing more people in your extended family means a great chance for some different matches.

As all my parents and grandparents are dead, I tested myself, my son, and my paternal first cousin. The chart to the left is where my son (green) and my cousin (blue) match me. The dark sections are where no matches occurred as well as segments of the chromosomes which are not relevant to testing for genealogists.

If my cousin and I both match someone, I know the connection is on my father’s side. If only my son and I match someone, it is more likely that either the connection is on my mother’s line or that my cousin did not inherit enough of the DNA to connect with the match. Using your relatives in such a manner can narrow the hunt for your common ancestor.

However, just because you do not have a match with someone does not suggest you are not related. Gene segments recombine at random, and this means if you do not match a person you can still be related. You or your cousin did not inherited a large enough DNA segment in the same location to meet the minimum threshold to determine cousin-ship. For this reason, you will not be a genetic match to all of your genealogical cousins, should they test.

Family Finder (atDNA) summary:

· Males and females can test their atDNA in portions of the 22 pairs of chromosomes.
· The test gives matches anywhere on your pedigree chart.
· Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are tested.
· The larger the segment you share with someone the closer your common ancestor.

In conclusion, it is clear that each type of test helps genealogy. Relatives can be located with any of them, but how those relatives are related to us depends upon which test is used. The Y-DNA test finds matches to the all male line which is usually the surname in most cultures. The mtDNA test finds cousins along the all female line, but is more informative about our ancient culture. The Family Finder test locates cousins everywhere else on our pedigree charts, but with confidence back to the fifth cousin although connections can be found beyond that.

With DNA testing, the genealogist can prove and disprove their paper trail, find cousins they have never met, share genealogies with the hope that the new cousins have more information, and gain new research partners. Finding genealogical cousins is the best reason to DNA test family members!

The next article will provide ideas on how best to locate the common ancestor for those you match.

copyright 17 Jun 2010, E. Aulicino
Thank you, R.

Three DNA Tests for Genealogy, part 2 Y-DNA & mtDNA

Y-DNA Testing

The Y-chromosome has been passed down from father to son virtually unchanged since mankind began. The small changes in that Y-chromosome help us separate people into family units. This test gives results for the all male line, the top line of a pedigree chart, when the male tester is number one on that chart. See SUCCESS STORIES at www.isogg.org for Y-DNA testing used to break through a dead-end paper trail.

For genealogy, particular markers are tested on the Y-chromosome as they provide a mix of slowly and quickly mutating samples. This helps find which men are more closely related than others. If all the markers used were slow to mutate more people would appear to be closely related. If most markers were quick to mutate most people who are related would appear not to be. The geneticists and mathematicians collaborate to get the correct mix.

Each marker is tested for short tandem repeats (STRs). Our DNA, in part, is made up of four chemical bases: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C). These chemical bases form short patterns (AGAT) which appear side by side (in tandem), hence Short Tandem Repeat. The STRs are counted, and this count is the result given for a particular marker. For example, if the STR marker DYS393 repeated its AGAT sequence fourteen times, the result for that marker would be a 14. Different markers have different chemical patterns, but in each tested marker you receive your results as the number of times the pattern is repeated.

The result of testing is a series of numbers called a haplotype. (DYS393 is 14; DYS390 is 22; DYS19 is 15, etc.) This is your DNA signature. However, it is not just your signature, but it is that of all the males on your all male line. Of course, there could be a mutation at any time in that male lineage which would change how many times the repeat is seen, but you are still closely related.

A test for 12, 25, 37, or 67 STR markers can be ordered. The more markers you match with others the closer the common ancestor is. For example, if you take three traits you have (eye color, shape of your ears, skin tone) and compare only those three with your friends and neighbors, you are likely to match several people. If you now add ten more traits, you narrow that pool of matches. It is the same idea between testing twelve markers as opposed to thirty-seven or more.

For a close match you can have the exact same markers as another tester or a few differences. The number of differences allowed to still remain a good match is determined by the number of markers you test and the testing company’s prediction to the closest common ancestor. These predictions for the closest common ancestor are based on mathematical probability.

Y-DNA summary: · Only males can test their Y-DNA.
· The test gives matches for the all male line.
· Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) are recorded as the result of testing.
· The more STR marker results you share with someone the closer your common ancestor.

mtDNA Testing

The mitochondria is outside the cell’s nucleus. It is not the sex chromosome like the Y is. This genome is inherited by men and women from their mothers. Mothers have passed their mtDNA from mother to all their children virtually unchanged since womankind began. The mitochondria is very slow in mutating so it is more useful for ancient ancestry or to help with a specific problem where good testing candidates are available. This test gives result for the all female line, the bottom line of a pedigree chart, when the male or female tester is number one on that chart. See SUCCESS STORIES at www.isogg.org for several ways mtDNA has been used to break through a brick wall.

There are three mtDNA tests at Family Tree DNA: HVR1 (Hyperveritable region 1), HVR2 Hyperveritable region 2) and the FGS (Full Genomic Sequence). The first two are parts of the mitochondria while the last is the entire mitochondria.

This test looks at Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). A SNP (pronounced SNiP) is a change in a single letter of our genetic code (A, G, T, C). For mtDNA tests, results are compared against the Cambridge Reference System (CRS). You are given only the differences your results from the CRS as the FGS contains 16,568 markers. No one wants to put all that on a website or frame-able certificate! Examples of mtDNA marker results are: 16256T; 16399G; 315.1C. The numbers in this case are the names of the markers. The letter after the number is the chemical base (Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine) that differs from the CRS.

For a match, you need to have the exact markers as someone else. Even then, the time to the common ancestor could be before surnames and before recorded genealogical data.

mtDNA summary:
· Males and females can test their mtDNA.
· The test gives matches for the all female line.
· Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are tested and compared against the CRS (Cambridge Reference System).
· The more markers you share with someone the closer your common ancestor, but given the slowness in mutating that match could still be hundreds to thousands of years ago.

Next, Autosomal Testing, a new breakthrough in genetic genealogy!

copyright 17 Jun 2010, E. Aulicino
Thank you R.

Three DNA Tests for Genealogy, part 1 Overview

Over the course of the next few weeks, my posts will be a series on the new austosomal testing for genealogy. The first three parts in this series reviews some basic facts and clarifies the three types of testing for genealogy. The next section will explore the various aspects of autosomal testing for Family Tree DNA's Family Finder. Much of this information applies to any autosomal testing for genealogy; however, company offerings do vary and that topic will conclude this massive series.

These articles are meant for the Newbies and those interested in a basic understanding. They will not get over technical.

All material is under copyright. Please write directly for permission to use any information. Email: aulicino@hevanet.com

Part 1:
- Historical background and a few facts

Family Tree DNA pioneered DNA testing for genealogy in 2000, bringing the power of DNA tests to family historians. In the years since, family history researchers who use DNA tests have become known as genetic genealogists. These dedicated researchers understand the value of DNA testing as being the most accurate tool available.

The first years saw rapid changes in our understanding of the science and improvements in the power of available tests. In early years, only a few Y-chromosome STR (short tandem repeat) markers were available. Today it is routine to test with 67 STR markers. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) started with the humble HVR1 test. Now the entire gene sequence is standard.

It looked as if little more could be done for family researchers, as early autosomal testing was neither accurate nor reliable enough for genealogy. That has changed. We are embarking on a new adventure, a new stage in DNA testing, and once again we have become the pioneers for this new generation of DNA testing.

However, I find that many genealogists and other interested parties, as well as some genetic genealogists, are confused about the three types of tests: Y-DNA STR, mtDNA full genomic sequence, and autosomal microarray. Simply put, the Y-DNA test gives you results along the very top line of your pedigree chart, the mtDNA gives you results along the very bottom line and your chart, and now the autosomal test gives you matches on all the lines between the top and bottom. Each test is important for different reasons, and this series will help you understand all three by comparing their basic concepts.

The Facts

We know that all of mankind is closely related. With each generation we double our ancestors, giving us a billion ancestors in thirty generations. The population of the earth thirty generations ago was no where near a billion people; therefore, we are related to ourselves many times over due to what is called pedigree collapse. Pedigree collapse is the reduction of ancestors given that cousins marry; that is, if two first cousins married, they would only have six grandparents and not eight. The farther you go back in time, given that people tended to remain in one area, more and more cousins married. We may have a billion ancestors in thirty generations, but they are not a billion different people.

We share 99.9% of our genome with all other humans. We have about 3 billion base pairs in our genome, and about 98% of those are loosely called Junk DNA as scientists have yet to discover their purpose.

We have 22 pairs of chromosomes and the sex chromosomes (Y and X). Men inherit the Y-chromosome from their fathers and one X chromosome from their mothers. Women inherit an X from each parent.

We know that every DNA test provides you with a set of numbers or numbers and letters, giving you a DNA signature (your results). Those testers who match your signature are related to you at some level.

We know that any DNA test will not tell you the name of a common ancestor or when and where that ancestor lived. It is up to good genealogical research to make that determination.

As genealogists, we know to use the right source or sources to find an ancestor's information. If we are looking for an ancestor in Britain, we do not search the US census. When we are looking for that ancestor's married name, we know that the census will not help. We know instead to consult vital and church records according to the time and place. We use the sources that may provide the information we need. The same is true for using DNA for genealogy. The three types of DNA most commonly used are the Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA), mitochondria DNA (mtDNA), and autosomal DNA (atDNA). Each is used to find others who are related to us, but each one is used to find matches in different parts of our pedigree chart.

Before we move forward, we must understand each test's strengths and weaknesses. The next article in this series will explain the difference between the Y-DNA & mtDNA test.

copyright 17 Jun 2010, E. Aulicino
Thanks to R for editing assistance.

Jammin' at Jamboree

The Southern California Genealogical Society (SCGS) held their Jamboree June 11-13, 2010 at the Marriott Hotel in Burbank. My understanding is that this is the third largest gathering of genealogists, behind NGS and FGS. That is prestigious! Attendance was estimated at 1700, the largest gathering for the festivities yet.

This was my first Jamboree. On Thursday, I hit the ground running. Katherine Borges and Linda Magellan picked me up at the airport and after dropping my luggage at the hotel. Upon leaving the hotel we ran into George Valko who was invited to join us on our next adventure. The four of us drove to the Bowers Museum in Santa Ana to see the Secrets of the Silk Road: Mystery Mummies of China. There we met Kenny Hedgepath and began our self-guided tour.

And why did a group of genetic genealogist drive nearly an hour to see some mummies? These were no ordinary mummies, and we are no ordinary tourists. The mummies had been DNA tested, and we are addicted genetic genealogists! How could we miss this one!

The mummies, found in the Tarim Basin in the far Western Xinjiang Uyghur region of China, proved to have Western DNA. The Silk Road passed through this arid region, and we all know traders used this road connecting the Eastern and the Western cultures. However, one cannot help but speculate how the women and babies came to this location in the second millennium BC, let alone die here.

One of the most striking mummies is of a beautiful young woman with petite features and long curly auburn hair, dubbed the "Beauty of Xiaohe" by the archeologists. Other artifacts clearly appeared to be from a Western culture with one tapestry displaying an man who appears to have been Greek or Roman. It would seem there was a complete village of for Westerners in this region of China thousands of years ago. The exhibit was fascinating.

The display travels to Houston and then to Philadelphia. You can see a video clip from MSNBC's Nightly News with Brian Williams.

On Friday, the Jamboree began at noon, but at 8 a.m. on the other days. I helped at the Family Tree DNA table, explaining the tests and swabbing customers. To my surprise and pleasure, a member of my Lamson DNA Project visited the booth as did a new Lambson tester … every project manager’s dream! Even the wife of my Ogan genealogical cousin found me! She and I had traveled to Wales for a couple of weeks, hunting ancestors. It was old home week ... or perhaps the gathering of the clans (clans of genealogists, genetic genealogists, and ISOGG members) ... as there were people I knew from home, some I had met in London, and others I see yearly at the FTDNA conference in Houston. It was great to see everyone again!

Saturday evening Alice Fairhurst hosted a panel discussion of ISOGG members to answer questions regarding the new autosomal tests for genealogists.

Bennett Greenspan of Family Tree DNA announced several new features coming to their Family Finder test in the next few weeks to few months. He demonstrated how you can use the smaller segments, e.g.. 1 cM in size to figure out which side of the family a person probably matches on FF. This, of course, is based on testing relevant members of your family. For example, I have tested my son and paternal first cousin. If the match is with my cousin, I know the connection is on my father’s line.

Other highlights for Family Finder include Third Party uploads available the first week in July, Ancestry Painting coming soon, and the X Chromosome pages will be completed by the end for the summer. A surprise tool is in the wings for the Administrators and will be revealed in the last quarter of the year.

There were many celebrities in the crowd, namely, Dick Eastman (Eastman's Online Genealogical Newsletter), Katherine Borges (founder and director of ISOGG), Megan Smolenyak (author, speaker, creator of Roots TV and much more), and Chris Haley (Director of the Study of the Legacy of Slavery in Maryland and nephew of the late Alex Haley). Maureen Taylor (the Photo Detective), Pat Richley (DearMYRTLE), Schelly Talalay Dardashti (Tracing the Tribe), and many more notables spoke and had booths. With all the speakers, genealogists, companies, and even with groups meeting in the lobby or bar, everyone was truly "pressing the flesh," and this was very much a Jammin' Jamboree!

No doubt everyone is looking forward to next year's Jamboree!

Many thanks to the organizers whose wonderful talents made this a great event!

copyright: 17 Jun 2010 E. Aulicino
Photo courtesy of K. Borges

05 June 2010


Today Family Tree DNA announced their summer sale.

Here is a wonderful time to get your friends and family tested from the oldest, most reliable, customer-service-oriented DNA company existing. Family Tree DNA has the largest database for genealogy testing and was the first company to offer DNA testing to the public, exclusively for the purpose of genealogy.

Order several tests today. Test the surnames on your chart. Take them to your family reunions this summer! Raffle them at your genealogical seminars! Give them as birthday or father's day presents! What better way to honor someone than to ask them to leave a bit of themselves behind forever!

The test will keep for months, even years, if you do not have it near heat (Don't leave it in the trunk of your car as you travel to that reunion!) Having tests on-hand allows you to swab a relative at a moments notice in less than five minutes*; no chance for them to back down or put it aside.

The sale begins today June 5, 2010 and will end June 25, 2010. Kits much be paid by June 30, 2010. A credit card at the time of the order is considered on-time payment. If you order on invoice be sure your payment reaches the office in Houston before June 30th.

The following tests are on sale:

The Y-DNA 37 marker test is now $119 (Reg $149)
The Y-DNA 67 marker test is now $199 (Reg @239)
The Y-DNA 37+mtDNA test is now $159 (This combined test would cost $238)

Anyone can order by clicking on the FTDNA icon on this blog. If you do not find a surname project for your name, join the society project I have created that will take any tester. You do not have to be a member of the society, and by being in my project, I can help you understand your test results. ALSO, you can join any relevant project in the future at the click of a button and at no cost so you do not have to remain in my society project.

The steps to order via my blog:

1. Click on the icon in the lower right of this blog.
2. Where it says SEARCH on the right side of the FTDNA homepage, type in Genealogical Forum (GFO may work, also) ...or you can type in your male tester's surname to locate an existing project for our surname. If there is none, use the GFO one.
3. On the next page, click on the GFO project or the appropriate surname project
4. Complete the form and scorll to the bottom of the page to click JOIN.

Join the exciting world of genetic genealogy!

Email me at aulicino@hevanet.com if you have questions or do not see the icon on this page.

*To take a DNA test in five minutes or less follow these steps.
(This works and is done at conferences.)

1. Do not have anything to eat or drink an hour before taking the test.
2. Use one swab to scrape the inside of one cheek in long up and down motions for a minute.
3. Firmly push the plunger-like handle to release the cotton brush into the vial and close the cap (Be careful not to spill the liquid inside).
4. Use the next swab for the other cheek and the third for the roof of your mouth.
5. Sign the green form to allow people who match you to see that they match. Enclose payment if you didn't order with your credit card.
6. Mail the samples to FTDNA in the enclosed envelop.

The hardest part is waiting 5-6 weeks for the results!

Have fun,